Type 1 diabetes violence in the workplace
Workplace bullying and violence may increase the risk of type 2 diabetes, for both men and women, according to new research published in Diabetologia (the. Workplace bullying and violence may increase the risk of type 2 diabetes, for both men and women, according to new research published in. We found a higher risk of incident type 2 diabetes among employees exposed to bullying or violence in the workplace. NEWBRIDGE BETTING GUIDE 128
The risk estimates attenuated slightly when taking BMI into account, especially for bullying. The results were similar for men and women, and were consistent across cohorts. Further research is needed to determine whether policies to reduce bullying and violence at work may reduce the incidence of type 2 diabetes in working populations. Research on the mechanisms is also highly warranted. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article Keywords: Bullying, Diabetes, Meta-analysis, Occupational health, Stress, Violence, Workplace Introduction Recent meta-analyses have suggested that psychosocial work characteristics, such as job insecurity [ 1 ] and long working hours [ 2 ], are associated with a moderately higher risk of diabetes, while the health effects of highly adverse social work stressors, such as bullying and violence at work, are far less well documented.
The prevalence of violence and threats of violence also vary between countries, but are generally more common in occupations with client contact; for example, Bullying and violence can adversely affect personal resources, such as self-esteem and coping capacity [ 3 ].
They have also been linked with an increased risk of chronic conditions, including type 2 diabetes [ 6 ], which is characterised by insulin resistance in liver and muscle and progressive beta cell failure [ 7 ]. Induced negative emotions, such as depression and anxiety [ 8 , 9 ], may contribute to diabetes risk [ 10 ] through prolonged activation of the hypothalamic—pituitary—adrenal axis and sympathetic nervous system, or indirectly through impaired sleep, for example [ 11 ].
Furthermore, stress-related coping strategies, such as comfort eating behaviour with an increased preference for energy and nutrient dense foods [ 12 ], may result in weight gain or an increase in waist circumference [ 13 ], which are both pivotal risk factors for diabetes [ 14 ]. However, it is unknown whether bullying or violence at work affects diabetes risk in the general population.
To the best of our knowledge, the only existing study on negative interpersonal relations and diabetes was a cross-sectional study of male and female employees in the USA in It postulated a higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes among employees exposed to workplace bullying, threats or other kinds of harassment compared with those who were not exposed to these social stressors [ 15 ].
However, due to the cross-sectional study design, the temporality of the association is unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the prospective relationship between bullying and violence at work and the risk of incident type 2 diabetes using longitudinal individual-level data from four large Nordic cohort studies involving more than 40, participants.
While Type 2 Diabetes cannot be cured, many individuals can control the condition by diet, weight management, and exercise. For others, medication, taken either orally or by injection, is necessary to control the condition. Gestational Diabetes During pregnancy, the placenta produces hormones that, while sustaining the pregnancy, may also make cells more resistant to insulin. The pancreas will normally then produce enough additional insulin to compensate for the resistance of cells to insulin.
However, in some cases the pancreas is unable to produce enough insulin make up the difference and too much glucose remains in the bloodstream and not enough makes it into cells, resulting in gestational diabetes. Unlike Type 1 Diabetes and Type 2 Diabetes, gestational diabetes is often a short-lived health impairment.
A health impairment is a physical disability if it: Affects a body system such a neurological, immunological, musculoskeletal, special sense organs, respiratory, including speech organs, cardiovascular, reproductive, digestive, genitourinary, hemic and lymphatic, skin, or endocrine; and Limits a major life activity. A health impairment limits a major life activity if it makes it more difficult to achieve a major life activity. California Government Code section Diabetes Can Qualify as a Physical Disability Under FEHA Diabetes affects a body system, namely, the endocrine system and may also affect other body systems , as the pancreas is an integral part of the endocrine system and insulin is among the hormones produced by the pancreas.
Diabetes may also limit a major life activity by making it more difficult to work. Disclosing to Your Employer That You Have Diabetes Usually, when a person with diabetes is hired, the employer will not know that the person is diabetic.
Job applications and job interviewers do not seek such information. A majority of employers do not require medical examinations. FEHA prohibits employers from discriminating against job applicants and employees based on disability unless the disability prevents the worker, even with reasonable accommodation, from performing the essential functions of the job without posing a threat to herself or others.
Nonetheless, many people believe that disclosing a health problem to a prospective employer will make them less likely to be hired. Accommodating Your Diabetes FEHA requires employers to provide workers with disabilities reasonable accommodation—a modification or adjustment that bestows the worker with equal employment opportunities unless the accommodation would create an undue hardship for the employer e.
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People with prediabetes have a blood glucose level that is elevated but is not high enough to be classified as diabetes. People with prediabetes are at high risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Routine prenatal care includes screening for gestational diabetes, so worksite screening is not necessary. After adjusting for population age and sex differences, average medical expenditures among people with diagnosed diabetes were 2.
People less than 45 years old should be screened if they have certain other risk factors, such as a relative with diabetes or a personal history of high blood pressure. Preventive Services Task Force USPSTF external icon recommends screening for abnormal blood glucose as part of cardiovascular risk assessment in adults aged 40 to 70 years who are overweight or obese. Effective behavioral interventions combine counseling on a healthful diet and physical activity and involve multiple contacts over extended periods.
For diabetes, the same tests are used for screening and for the diagnosis of diabetes and prediabetes. People with diabetes can lower the occurrence of complications by controlling blood glucose, blood pressure, and blood lipids Many people with type 2 diabetes can control their blood glucose by following a healthy meal plan and exercise program, losing excess weight, and taking oral medication.
Some people with type 2 diabetes may also need insulin to control their blood glucose To survive, people with type 1 diabetes must have insulin delivered by injection or a pump Many people with diabetes also need to take medications to control their cholesterol and blood pressure Self-management education or training is a key step in improving health outcomes and quality of life.
It focuses on self-care behaviors, such as healthy eating, being active, and monitoring blood sugar References 1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National diabetes fact sheet: general information and national estimates on diabetes in the United States, Atlanta, GA: U. Diabetes Report Card National Diabetes Statistics Report, American Diabetes Association.
All done! Proceed to Extent of the Problem. Type 1: Criminal Intent In Type 1 violence, the perpetrator has no legitimate relationship to the business or its employees, and is usually committing a crime in conjunction with the violence robbery, shoplifting, trespassing. For example: a nurse assaulted in the hospital parking garage; a home health care nurse is mugged while conducting a home visit. In health care settings Type I violence occurs less frequently compared to other types of violence.
Research shows that this type of violence occurs most frequently in emergency and psychiatric treatment settings, waiting rooms, and geriatric settings, but is by no means limited to these. Prevention of Type 2 violence is a primary focus of this course.
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