Difference in electrical potential energy between two places in an electric field
Similarly, Charges in electric fields have ELECTRIC POTENTIAL Energy from field given to charge Electrical potential difference more important. is the difference in potential energy per unit charge between two locations in an electric field. Potential difference is the difference between the potentials between two points in the electric field. Electric potential is defined at a point. HOPE FOR BETTER PLACES
For example, imagine you want to use a stone to pound a nail into a piece of wood. You first lift the stone high above the nail, which increases the potential energy of the stone-Earth system—because Earth is so large, it does not move, so we usually shorten this by saying simply that the potential energy of the stone increases.
When you drop the stone, gravity converts the potential energy into kinetic energy. When the stone hits the nail, it does work by pounding the nail into the wood. The gravitational potential energy is the work that a mass can potentially do by virtue of its position in a gravitational field.
Potential energy is a very useful concept, because it can be used with conservation of energy to calculate the motion of masses in a gravitational field. Electric potential energy works much the same way, but it is based on the electric field instead of the gravitational field. By virtue of its position in an electric field, a charge has an electric potential energy. If the charge is free to move, the force due to the electric field causes it to accelerate, so its potential energy is converted to kinetic energy, just like a mass that falls in a gravitational field.
But on a submicroscopic scale, such energy per particle electron, proton, or ion can be of great importance. For example, even a tiny fraction of a joule can be great enough for these particles to destroy organic molecules and harm living tissue. The particle may do its damage by direct collision, or it may create harmful X-rays, which can also inflict damage.
It is useful to have an energy unit related to submicroscopic effects. Figure 3. An electron is accelerated between two charged metal plates, as it might be in an old-model television tube or oscilloscope. The electron gains kinetic energy that is later converted into another form—light in the television tube, for example.
Since energy is related to voltage by , we can think of the joule as a coulomb-volt. By conservation of energy, the kinetic energy has to equal the change in potential energy, so.
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