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Bettinghaus persuasive communication

bettinghaus persuasive communication

Bettinghaus, Erwin P.. (). Persuasive communication (2nd ed). New York: Holt Rinehart and Winston. Chicago. Persuasive communication. Authors: Erwin Paul Bettinghaus, Michael J. Cody. Front cover image for Persuasive communication. Print Book, English, © PERSUASIVE COMMUNICATION 5/E. PERSUASIVE COMMUNICATION 5/E. View Larger Image. Author: BETTINGHAUS. ISBN: Publisher: Harcourt Brace & Company. ODDS TO WIN THE GOLF TOURNAMENT THIS WEEKEND

Pearce, Terry. San Francisco, Jossey-Bass Publishers, The author believes you can use speech as a leadership tool to articulate a vision, communicate with a passion, and connect authentically with the audience. Robbins, Jo. Rush, Tom. New York: Penguin Books, Rybacki, K. Advocacy and Opposition: An Introduction to Argumentation. In addition, there is a chapter that identifies and explains common fallacies. Another section provides a discussion of ethical issues related to argumentation.

Time-Life Films. Great Speeches. Volumes I-XI. The Educational Video Group. Wonderful for analysis and enjoyment. Speak out and remove all doubt. Management Today, Fluharty, G. Public speaking. Hamilton, P. Persuasion and industrial relations: A case of argument in a joint consultative committee. Industrial Relations Journal, 30, Hart, R. Infante, D.

Building communication theory. Writing and communicating in business. New York: MacMillan. Katz, D. Source credibility, legal liability, and the law of endorsements. Littlejohn, S. Theories of human communication. Columbus, OH: Charles E. Martel, M. Before you say a word: The executive guide to effective communication. Englewood Cliffs, NJ. McCroskey, J. An introduction to rhetorical communication. McGuire, W.

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Persuasive Communication.

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Ubiq ethereum 2.0 Persuasion and industrial relations: A case of argument in a joint consultative committee. Types of Information. In addition, there is information on diverse topics like support and slang, humor and hecklers. Management Today, Powerful Presentation Skills by Debra Smith. Montgomery, R. Griffin, J.
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A theory consists of two parts: 1. Basic concepts words or phrases that have a particular meaning in a given context. Statements concerning the relationships between these concepts. A theory is different from a model. A model is a graphic representation of a phenomenon, such as persuasion. Because by its nature the model highlights only certain aspects of the process under investigation, be it persuasion or simple communication, it is a limited representation.

A theory of persuasion, by contrast, is much more comprehensive, because it focuses on more of the aspects of the process under investigation. Persuasive communication, like all scientific disciplines and sub-disciplines, can be studied from different angles. In examining persuasion in this book, we take the functional approach: Persuasion is seen to function in the service of something, in this case in the service of a democratic society.

This applies to interpersonal relationships, organisations, public relations, advertising, print and broadcast journalism, politics, public speeches and debates, religion and the arts, among others. Persuasion is therefore integral to the functioning of a democracy.

The presence of persuasion in the context of a modern democracy immediately raises questions as to the nature of the concept of democracy itself. The term is most often used to refer to a form of government, even though strictly speaking it is more of a procedure designed to place a government in office and to establish a public order in which diverse legal interests are harmonised and balanced.

We focus on this sense of democracy, as well as on democracy as an ideology and a way of life that relates to humans as existing beings. The Greeks did not include slaves in their conception of people see Van Zyl Slabbert, The ancient Greeks are often regarded as the founders of democracy when the concept is used to mean a form of government, but antiquity ultimately rejected this form of government Wolheim, But except for this, authoritarianism of some type prevailed throughout the world until after the American and French revolutions of the late 18th century.

A characteristic of all authoritarian systems is the denial of significant political rights or privileges to most members of the body politic. Consequently, minority rule prevails in the sense that ultimate, and immediate, control of the government is confined to a small proportion of the total adult population. Policies are decided by officials who are legally and politically responsible not to the general public, but only to the minority who enjoy a monopoly of governmental power.

The American and French revolutions were influenced by the ideas of the Enlightenment, and especially by ideas propagated by the great French philosophers of the 18th century. However, the Western conception of democracy — as a form of government created by the will of the majority of citizens — was not accepted unconditionally during the 19th century. To speak of democracy as a form of government is also to distinguish arrangements and actions in society as characteristics from a normative perspective see Connolly, — These may be divided into three broad categories: 1.

Basic individual freedoms other than political rights should be recognised by government. These freedoms should be exercised according to the rule of law. The rule of law may be described as a doctrine which prescribes that no power can be exercised except according to procedures, principles and constraints contained in the law. Moreover, any citizen can find redress against any other, however powerfully placed, and against the officers of the state itself, for any act that involves a breach of the law.

This implies that governmental powers are kept separate, that is, an independent judiciary and an executive separately elected or responsible to an elected legislature. The idea of an independent political public sphere operating as an intermediary system between state or government and society in a democracy has long been propagated by the German sociologist and philosopher Juergen Habermas.

Habermas notes that the political public sphere should be instrumental in forming considered public opinions through, among other matters, diversity of independent mass media and through general access of inclusive mass audiences to the public sphere. After Napoleon accused the ideologues of advocating revolutionary ideas, ideology gained the additional meaning of abstract, impractical or fanatical theories, which of course gave the concept a negative connotation.

This view became more widely accepted, especially after the appearance of The German Ideology by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in This mainly negative connotation has gradually disappeared, but ideology continues to be linked with socio-political ideas and officially sanctioned doctrines of society acquired in the past three centuries. The idea that this natural right is recognised only in a democracy, and that democracy is therefore the best form of government, is an idea that is believed rather than proven.

In African philosophy, democracy relates to socialist goals and aims, and has a communal focus. According to Senghor : [t]his is a community-based society, communal, not collectivist. We are concerned, here, not with a mere collection of individuals, but with people conspiring together, conspiring in the basic Latin sense, united among themselves even to the very center of their being, communing through their ancestors with God, who is the center of all centers.

It is a question, once again, of modernising our values by borrowing from European socialism its science and technical skill, above all its spirit of progress. The Western conception of democracy focuses on differences between parties in which the winner reigns supreme through the ballot box. By contrast, the African conception of democracy upholds unity through consensus and dialogue as the ideal.

Everyone ideally has the right to participate in the dialogue and decision-making. Respect is given to the individual who contributes to unity and justice in dialogue, which may lead to a kind of coalition process. In this call, a mixture of traditional Western and African approaches to democracy comes to the fore Mbeki, Achille Mbembe , an influential African historian and political philosopher who was born in Cameroon but now resides in South Africa, suggests that in many African countries the masses feel that democracy has betrayed them.

They believe that they are still powerless and bent on survival Mbembe, The law and constitution in many African countries have made a mockery of freedom Mbembe, The idea that Africans held during the first half of the 20th century, if they could rid themselves of colonialism and become independent, was of a democratic state in which life would be humane and governed by ethics Mbembe, Instead, in many cases, independence brought about domination by a few, and the self-interest of those in power replaced ethics Mbembe, Freedom was abandoned in favour of domination, corruption and violence, explains Mbembe The above description of democracy focuses mainly on its governmental and ideological nature.

We now turn to the respective principles of freedom and equality underlying the Western concept of democracy. All too often, the negative side of freedom has dominant concerns. The quest on the road into the unknown, uncertain and insecure is also part of freedom.

After all, since we do not always know what is best for us, we explore in order to find solutions. Raphael, In fact, throughout history there have been tensions between the advocates of democracy and liberalism. However, since the 20th century liberals have come to view Western democracy not as an end in itself, but as a means of preserving freedom of the individual, to secure a maximum of freedom for citizens see Arblaster, — This right or freedom to choose also distinguishes human beings from animals.

For instance, a human being can choose to commit suicide, an animal cannot. Choice is the selection of one possibility among several. More than one possibility or course of action must be open to a person before that person can be said to have a choice — you must not be prevented by physical or psychological causes from having at least two genuine options.

This right to think whatever we want does not, however, mean that such thoughts are entirely our own. In fact, your thoughts can never be regarded as a product just of your own deliberation, free from external influences of any kind. Thinking is conditioned, for instance, by social circumstances and by various propaganda practices that flourish in a democracy. Nevertheless we can make many of our thoughts our own by living them, by attaching meanings to them.

But press freedom, understood broadly as meaning that the mass media should not be under governmental control, does not guarantee that the individual can choose a particular viewpoint among many. Private media groups may all propagate the same view on the merits of the free enterprise system, for instance to the exclusion of other viewpoints.

Freedom of thought is an evasive but necessary ideal for a democracy. In the essay On liberty, written in , John Stuart Mill advocates complete freedom of thought and discussion within the political order. Mill —51 bases his argument on four grounds: Firstly, if any opinion is compelled to silence, that opinion may, for aught we can certainly know, be true.

To deny this is to assume our own infallibility. Thirdly, even if the received opinion be not only true, but the whole truth; unless it is suffered to be, and actually is, vigorously and earnestly contested, it will, by most of those who receive it, be held in the manner of prejudice, with little comprehension or feeling of its rational grounds. And not only this, but fourthly, the meaning of the doctrine itself will be in danger of being lost, or enfeebled, and deprived of its vital effect on the character and conduct; the dogma becoming a mere formal profession, inefficacious for good, but cumbering the ground, and preventing the growth of any real and heartfelt conviction, from reason or personal experience.

As Levi —46 suggests, Mill advocates such freedom of thought and discussion in order to foster free development of individuality. Individuality incorporates the elements of spontaneity and diversity, and the latitude of choice, provided by the very freedom of thought, expression and discussion mutual criticism Levi, Consciousness of individuality is a fairly recent phenomenon in human history.

Historically, human beings have been regarded as social animals. Mill was thus in line with post-medieval tradition, which he carried forward when he stressed the unique importance of the individual. As Alexis de Tocqueville expounds in Democracy in America, Mill emphasises that the threat to individual freedom in a democracy lies not so much in the mandates of law, but in the pressures of public sentiment, which he fears will also lead to intellectual stagnation.

People, whether as rulers or as fellow citizens, impose their own opinions and inclinations as a rule on others Mill, Furthermore, this is so energetically supported that it is hardly ever kept under restraint by anything but want of power, and that power is not declining but growing Mill, The basic idea of freedom here is that self-direction — choosing and expressing for yourself in a responsible manner — is far preferable to having decisions made for you and imposed upon you by another see Dewey, — This means that the rights of all individuals in a democracy are subject to a sovereign legislative body such as Parliament and to no other factor such as race or class.

Naturally, there is never full equality before the law. Neither does legal equality guarantee that all individuals are equally able to take full advantage of the rights conferred. For example, some people, by having superior education or more money, may be in a better position to exercise their legal rights than the poorly educated or those with much lower funds.

This has given rise to the distinction between de jure equality and de facto equality: rich and poor have equal rights in law, but it would be wrong to claim that they have equal power to enforce those rights. This means that there should be equality in the ability to vote someone into office, and to stand for election to office yourself. Such political rights should not, for instance, be confined to the rich and the well born. Political equality, like legal equality, never exists absolutely.

For example, children never have the vote — it is usually the norm that only adults have the right to vote. In the United Kingdom, for instance, certain offices of state notably that of sovereign are hereditary and not open to everyone, while in the United States, you can become president, among other things, only if you were born in that country.

A form of factual equality is implied; that is, that every adult excluding those with a mental health condition has the ability to form a political judgement and to make a rational political choice — which, of course, may not in fact be true.

This means that all individuals should be given the same opportunity such as in the field of education to develop whichever personal talents they have and to make whichever unique contributions they can. Equality of opportunity lies at the very heart of democracy. Of course, despite favouring equal opportunity, democracy still has many inequalities, such as those of income, wealth and power.

Some kinds of equality are unattainable, it seems safe to assume. As legal, political and social conditions became more equal for people in 19th century America, Tocqueville notes, Americans seemed more and more to take pride not in their individuality, in their freedom, but rather in their sameness.

Moreover, Tocqueville proposes that democracy in 19th century America had, in the sacred name of the majority, raised up a tyranny over the minds of men as oppressive and as formidable as any in history: the tyranny of the majority. However, it is important to recall that Tocqueville had an aristocratic bias; he argues throughout Democracy that uniformity, conformity and mediocrity are fixed returns of egalitarian democratic society Tocqueville, see also Aron, A truly democratic society would then, as Dahrendorf — suggests, combine a maximum of equality of circumstances with a minimum of equality of character.

Equality in a democracy would prevail if individuals had equal opportunity to participate and to be involved as self-conscious subjects in the communication process. Mutual respect, spontaneity and awareness of the other as an individual would be prerequisites for people to participate in communication in this way. Consequently, we would presume that a democratic state would also respect the line between the power of the majority and the rights of minorities including dissident minorities.

Equality is a great leveller. Equality makes it exceedingly difficult for one person or a few people to oppress the many, but in turn it makes it just as difficult for one person to be free from the oppression of the many. Equality by itself is not ideal. If all people were equally wretched, equally poor or equally powerful, the equality would be of no benefit; in this sense, people may be more equal in a totalitarian regime than in a democracy.

The point is that if people say they want to be free and equal their demand for freedom often puts a limit on their demand for equality see Lipson, For example, any attempt to achieve equality in wealth for all citizens would surely result in a form of totalitarianism.

To keep people equal in wealth, in spite of their unequal abilities, differing work performance and varying aptitudes, would require a degree of all-round regimentation surpassing anything that a dictator has yet achieved. Although democracy implies that certain freedoms, such as freedom of speech, are conferred equally on all people, in the final analysis it has to be decided which is the more important: freedom or equality.

Applying equality of people as an all-embracing principle leads to the degeneration of humankind: It prevents individuals from developing their personal capacities which are always qualitatively unequal to the greatest possible extent, thus sacrificing individuality for the sake of equality. People tend to become the same, rather than becoming self-conscious subjects.

It would be in order if equality implied that everyone could communicate on an equal subject footing so that they are able to actualise themselves. The health and beauty industries may persuade consumers to buy their products by promising increased attractiveness. While it may seem shallow to entertain such ego needs, they are an important part of our psychological makeup. Instead, ethical speakers should use appeals to self-esteem that focus on prosperity, contribution, and attractiveness in ways that empower listeners.

Review of Persuasive Strategies Ethos. Evokes a rational, cognitive response from the audience. Evokes an emotional response from the audience. Cognitive dissonance. Moves an audience by pointing out inconsistencies between new information and their currently held beliefs, attitudes, and values. Positive motivation. Negative motivation. Appeals to safety needs. Appeals to social needs.

Appeals to self-esteem needs. She uses, more than once, all the persuasive strategies discussed in this chapter. As you watch the speech, answer the following questions: Ethos. List specific examples of how the speaker develops the following dimensions of credibility: competence, trustworthiness, and dynamism. List specific examples of how the speaker uses logic to persuade her audience. How did the speaker appeal to emotion? What metaphors did she use? What other communicative strategies wording, imagery, etc.

List at least one example of how the speaker uses positive motivation. List at least one example of how the speaker uses negative motivation. List at least one example of how the speaker appeals to safety needs. List at least one example of how the speaker appeals to social needs. List at least one example of how the speaker utilizes cognitive dissonance.

Sample Persuasive Speech Title: Education behind Bars Is the Key to Rehabilitation General purpose: To persuade Specific purpose: By the end of my speech, my audience will believe that prisoners should have the right to an education. Thesis statement: There should be education in all prisons, because denying prisoners an education has negative consequences for the prisoner and society, while providing them with an education provides benefits for the prisoner and society.

Introduction of topic: While we value education as an important part of our society, we do not value it equally for all. Credibility and relevance: While researching this topic, my eyes were opened up to how much an education can truly affect a prisoner, and given my desire to be a teacher, I am invested in preserving the right to learn for everyone, even if they are behind bars. While I know from our audience analysis activity that some of you do not agree with me, you never know when this issue may hit close to home.

Someday, someone you love might make a mistake in their life and end up in prison, and while they are there I know you all would want them to receive an education so that when they get out, they will be better prepared to make a contribution to society. Preview: Today, I invite you listen with an open mind as I discuss the need for prisoner education, a curriculum that will satisfy that need, and some benefits of prisoner education.

Body According to a article in the journal Corrections Today on correctional education programs, most states have experienced an increase in incarceration rates and budgetary constraints over the past ten years, which has led many to examine best practices for reducing prison populations. In that same article, criminologist and former research director of the Federal Bureau of Prisons states that providing correctional education is one of the most productive and important reentry services that our prisons offer.

His claim is supported by data collected directly from prisoners, 94 percent of whom identify education as a personal reentry need—ranking it above other needs such as financial assistance, housing, or employment. Despite the fact that this need is clearly documented, funding for adult and vocational education in correctional education has decreased.

Many prisoners have levels of educational attainment that are far below those in the general population. According to statistics from , as cited in the Corrections Today article, approximately 40 percent of state prison inmates did not complete high school, as compared to 19 percent of the general population. Additionally, while about 48 percent of the general public have taken college classes, only about 11 percent of state prisoners have.

Prisoner education is also needed to break a cycle of negativity and stigma that many prisoners have grown accustomed to. The label student, however, has the potential to do so because it has positive associations and can empower the prisoner to make better choices to enhance his or her confidence and self-worth. In order to meet the need for prisoner education that I have just explained, it is important to have a curriculum that is varied and tailored to various prisoner populations and needs.

The article from Corrections Today notes that education is offered to varying degrees in most US prisons, but its presence is often debated and comes under increased scrutiny during times of budgetary stress. Some states have implemented programs that require inmates to attend school for a certain amount of time if they do not meet minimum standards for certain skills such as reading or math.

The article notes that even prisoners who have attended or even graduated from college may benefit from education, as they can pursue specialized courses or certifications. Based on my research, I would propose that the prison curriculum have four tiers: one that addresses basic skills that prisoners may lack, one that prepares prisoners for a GED, one that prepares prisoners for college-level work, and one that focuses on life and social skills.

The first tier of the education program should focus on remediation and basic skills, which is the most common form of prisoner education as noted by Foley and Gao in their article from the Journal of Correctional Education that studied educational practices at several institutions. These courses will teach prisoners basic reading, writing, and math skills that may be lacking.

Since there is a stigma associated with a lack of these basic skills, early instruction should be one-one-one or in small groups. The second tier should prepare prisoners who have not completed the equivalent of high school to progress on to a curriculum modeled after that of most high schools, which will prepare them for a GED.

Basic general education goals include speaking, writing, listening, reading, and math. Once these general education requirements have been met, prisoners should be able to pursue specialized vocational training or upper-level college courses in a major of study, which may need to be taken online through distance learning, since instructors may not be available to come to the actual prisons to teach.

The fourth tier includes training in social and life skills that most people learn through family and peer connections, which many prisoners may not have had. Life skills such as budgeting, money management, and healthy living can increase confidence. Classes that focus on social skills, parenting, or relational communication can also improve communication skills and relational satisfaction; for example, workshops teaching parenting skills have been piloted to give fathers the skills needed to more effectively communicate with their children, which can increase feelings of self-worth.

According to a article by Behan in the Journal of Correctional Education, prisons should also have extracurricular programs that enhance the educational experience. Students could also organize a debate against students on the outside, which could allow the prisoners to interact face-to-face or virtually with other students and allow them to be recognized for their academic abilities.

Even within the prison, debates, trivia contests, paper contests, or speech contests could be organized between prisoners or between prisoners and prison staff as a means of healthy competition. Educating prisoners can benefit inmates, those who work in prisons, and society at large. The Corrections Today article I cited earlier notes that a federally funded three-state survey provided the strongest evidence to date that prisoner education reduces the recidivism rate and increases public safety.

The Corrections Today article also notes that prisoners who completed a GED reoffended at a rate 20 percent lower than the general prison population, and those that completed a college degree reoffended at a rate 44 percent lower than the general prison population. So why does prisoner education help reduce recidivism rates? Simply put, according to the article in the Studies in the Education of Adults I cited earlier, the skills gained through good prison education programs make released prisoners more desirable employees, which increases their wages and helps remove them from a negative cycles of stigma and poverty that led many of them to crime in the first place.

Further, the ability to maintain consistent employment has been shown to reduce the rate of reoffending. An entry on eHow. Prisoner education can also save cash-strapped states money. Giving prisoners time-off-sentence credits for educational attainment can help reduce the prison population, as eligible inmates are released earlier because of their educational successes. Education may be something the average teenager or adult takes for granted, but for a prisoner it could be the start of a new life.

Review of main points: There is a clear need for prisoner education that can be met with a sound curriculum that will benefit prisoners, those who work in prisons, and society at large. References Bayliss, P. Learning behind bars: Time to liberate prison education. Studies in the Education of Adults, 35 2 , — Behan, C. Context, creativity and critical reflection: Education in correctional institutions.

Journal of Correctional Education, 58 2 , — Foley, R. Correctional education: Characteristics of academic programs serving incarcerated adults. Journal of Correctional Education, 55 1 , 6— Kinney, A. What are the benefits of inmates getting GEDs? The top-nine reasons to increase correctional education programs. Corrections Today, 72 4 , 40— Key Takeaways Ethos refers to the credibility of a speaker and is composed of three dimensions: competence, trustworthiness, and dynamism.

Speakers develop ethos by being prepared, citing credible research, presenting information in a nonmanipulative way, and using engaging delivery techniques. Speakers appeal to logos by presenting factual objective information, using sound reasoning, and avoiding logical fallacies. Speakers appeal to pathos by using vivid language, including personal stories, and using figurative language. Cognitive dissonance refers to the mental discomfort that results from new information clashing with currently held beliefs, attitudes, or values.

Cognitive dissonance may lead a person to be persuaded, but there are other ways that people may cope with dissonance, such as by discrediting the speaker, seeking out alternative information, avoiding sources of dissonance, or reinterpreting the information. Speakers can combine positive and negative motivation with appeals to safety, social, or self-esteem needs in order to persuade. Exercises Ethos, or credibility, is composed of three dimensions: competence, trustworthiness, and dynamism.

Recount a time when you experienced cognitive dissonance. What was the new information and what did it clash with? What coping strategies, of the ones discussed in the chapter, did you use to try to restore cognitive balance? How ethical do you think it is for a speaker to rely on fear appeals? When do fear appeals cross the line? Imagine that you will be delivering a persuasive speech to a group of prospective students considering attending your school.

What could you say that would appeal to their safety needs? Their social needs? Their self-esteem needs? References Cooper, M.

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