Transistor non investing switched
Noninverting transistor switches which comprise only three terminals do not require a fourth terminal connected to a power supply, thereby rendering. For switching currents less than an ampere, the transistor switch can be used. Instead of a mechanical switch in the base circuit, an op-amp could be used. When. In an npn transistor like the one pictured, when the switch is open, no higher than the non-inverting input, it will saturate negative. SOFTWARE FREEWARE BETTING SYSTEMS
It is equivalent to a flyback converter using a single inductor instead of a transformer. Both of them can produce a range of output voltages, ranging from much larger in absolute magnitude than the input voltage, down to almost zero. In the inverting topology, the output voltage is of the opposite polarity than the input. This is a switched-mode power supply with a similar circuit topology to the boost converter and the buck converter.
The output voltage is adjustable based on the duty cycle of the switching transistor. One possible drawback of this converter is that the switch does not have a terminal at ground; this complicates the driving circuitry. The circuit operates as follows. Figures 6 through 8 show examples of such circuits. R1 gives base drive protection, and can be larger than 1k0, if desired. The relay is turned on by a positive input voltage.
Simple relay-driving circuit The current sensitivity of the relay can be raised by a factor of about 20, by replacing Q1 with a Darlington-connected pair of transistors. Figure 7 shows this technique used to make a circuit that can be activated by placing a resistance of less than 2M0 across a pair of stainless metal probes.
Water, steam, and skin contacts have resistances below this value, so this simple little circuit can be used as a water, steam, or touch-activated relay switch. R2 ensures that Q1 and Q2 turn completely off when the input terminals are open circuit. Simple npn common-emitter amplifier The first step in designing a circuit of the basic Figure 9 type is to select the value of load resistor R2. In the example shown, the input impedance is roughly 5k0, and is shunted by R1 — the voltage gain works out at about x, or 46dB.
The feedback action is such that any shift in the output level due to variations in hfe, temperature, or component values causes a counter-change in the base-current biasing level, thus tending to cancel the original shift. Common-emitter amplifier with feedback biasing The Figure 10 circuit has the same values of bandwidth and voltage gain as the Figure 9 design, but has a lower total value of input impedance. If desired, the shunting effects of the biasing network can be eliminated by using two feedback resistors and AC-decoupling them as shown in Figure Alternative gain values can be obtained by altering the R5 value.
Fixed-gain x10 common-emitter amplifier Figure 14 shows a useful variation of the above design. In this case, R3 equals R4, and is not decoupled, so the circuit gives unity voltage gain. Note, however, that this circuit gives two unity-gain output signals, with the emitter output in phase with the input and the collector signal in anti-phase. This circuit thus acts as a unity-gain phase splitter. Unity-gain phase splitter Figure 15 shows another way of varying circuit gain.
Alternative fixed-gain x10 amplifier Finally, Figure 16 shows how the Figure 10 design can be modified to give a wide-band performance by wiring DC-coupled emitter follower buffer Q2 between Q1 collector and the output terminal, to minimize the shunting effects of stray capacitance on R2, and thus extending the upper bandwidth to several hundred kHz.
Figures 17 to 19 show three useful high-gain, two-transistor voltage amplifier designs. High-gain two-stage amplifier Figure 18 shows an alternative version of the above design, using a pnp output stage — its performance is the same as that of Figure Alternative high-gain two-stage amplifier The Figure 19 circuit gives a voltage gain of about 66dB.
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